While this site focuses on community gardening maps in New York City, mapping gardens has been a professional and private endeavor for many centuries. Some of the earliest garden maps come from the ancient world and include drawings on papyrus, like the 1400 BC garden map from a high court official of Amenhotep III in Thebes.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, gardens designs were quite formal.
Langley, B. (1728). New principles in gardening: or, The laying out and planting parterres, groves, wildernesses, labyrinths, avenues, parks, &c. London: Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley in Pater-Noster Row; J. Pemberton in Fleetstreet; T. Bowles in St. Paul’s Church-Yard; J. Clarke, under the Royal Exchange; and J. Bowles at Mercer’s Hall in Cheapside. M DCC. XXVIII 
Nesbitt, Gemma. (1993). Garden Graphics: How to Plan and Map Your Garden. Deer Park, WI : Capability’s Books.